Sport Terms

Using proper terminology is a vital piece of being able to enjoy a sport. At Game On!, we teach girls appropriate sports vocabulary and families can supplement the camp knowledge by watching or attending games together.

Basketball
Proper dribbling form

3 point line: Line that separates the 2-point area from the 3-point area. In the WNBA, it is 22 feet 1 3/4 inches from the basket. All shots made behind the 3-point line are worth 3 points. If the player is stepping on the 3-point line when she shoots, it is worth 2-points.

Backboard: a piece of basketball equipment. It is a raised vertical board with a basket attached. It is made of a flat, rigid piece of material, often plexiglass. It is usually rectangular, but can also be oval. The backboard helps the shooter aim at the basket, and it gives the shooter something to bounce the ball off of in order to increase the ball’s chance of going into the basket.

Back screen: An off the ball screen, usually done while the defender has her back to the screener.

Baseline: The line beneath both baskets that shows the “out of bounds” on each side of the court.

Block: occurs when a defensive player legally deflects an attempted shot from an offensive player. The defender must not touch the offensive player’s hands or otherwise a foul is called. In order to be legal, the block must occur while the shot is traveling upward or at its apex

Bounce pass: the passer bounces the ball crisply about two-thirds of the way from his own chest to the receiver. The ball strikes the court and bounces up toward the receiver. The bounce pass takes longer to complete than the chest pass, but it is also harder for the opposing team to intercept (kicking the ball deliberately is a violation). Thus, players often use the bounce pass in crowded moments, or to pass around a defender.

Buzzer-beater: To make a shot right before end of the quarter, half, or game.

Center: Normally the tallest person on the team, does the tip-off, handles the middle of the court.

Chest pass: The ball is passed directly from the passer’s chest to the receiver’s chest. A proper chest pass involves an outward snap of the thumbs to add velocity and leaves the defense little time to react.

Cut: Offensive player moving without the ball to get open.

Dribble: Using one hand at a time, the ball is bounced onto the floor. The player can stay still or move across the court while dribbling. Once the player stops dribbling she cannot start again until another a teammate touches the ball.

Double dribble: is a violation in which a player dribbles the ball, clearly holds it with a combination of either one or two hands (while either moving or stationary), and then proceeds to dribble again without first either attempting a shot or passing off to a teammate. Double dribbling can also occur if a player tries to dribble using both hands at the same time

Double Team: When two people defend one player.

Downtown: The area behind the 3-point line (generally a long 3-pointer).

Elbow: The intersection of the free throw line and the side of the key.

Free throw: unopposed attempts to score points from a restricted area on the court (the free throw line; informally known as the foul line), and are generally awarded after a foul on the shooter by the opposing team. Each successful free throw is worth one point.

Free throw line: Line on the court that players shooting free throws stand behind. It is located 15 feet from the basket.

Foul: an infraction of the rules concerning illegal personal contact with an opponent and/or unsportsmanlike behavior. A personal foul is the most common type of foul in basketball. Due to the nature of the game, personal fouls occur on occasion and are not always regarded as unsportsmanlike. However, a contact foul involving excessive or unjustified contact is classed as an unsportsmanlike foul

High Post: Free throw area at the elbow.

Working on proper shooting form

Jump shot: an attempt to score a basket by jumping, usually straight up, and in mid-jump, propelling the ball in an arc into the basket. It is accomplished by the player bringing her elbow up until it is aligned with the hoop, then sent towards the hoop in a high arc. It is considered the easiest shot to make from a distance. The purposes of the jump are to make it more difficult for the defender to block, and to put more power behind the shot.

Layup: a two-point shot attempt made by leaping from below, laying the ball up near the basket, and using one hand to bounce it off the backboard and into the basket. The layup is considered the most basic shot in basketball. When doing a layup, the player lifts the outside foot, or the foot away from the basket.

Low Post: The block at the edge of the key even with the front of the rim.

Man-to-man: a type of defensive tactic in which each player is assigned to defend and follow the movements of a single player on offense. Often, a player guards his counterpart (e.g. center guarding center), but a player may be assigned to guard a different position. The strategy is not rigid however, and a player might switch assignment if needed, or leave his own assignment for a moment to double team an offensive player.

Mid Post: Area between the high and low post.

Overhead pass: used to pass the ball over a defender. The ball is released while over the passer’s head.

Paint/Lane: Area under the basket, between the free throw line and base line. The offense cannot be in the paint for more than 3 seconds or they must turn the ball over to the defense.

Pick and roll: an offensive play in which a player sets a screen (pick) for a teammate handling the ball and then slips behind the defender (rolls) to accept a pass

Point Guard: Primary ball handler on the court, (play maker).

Post player: Normally on the taller side, spends most of their time on the blocks and moving through the key.

Power Dribble: Two handed, short dribble, usually in line with the middle of your body, make a wide base with your feet. Normally used in the low post.

Push the Ball: To dribble or pass up the court quickly; the offense has an advantage on the fast break.

Power Forward:  This player plays in the post/high post area.  Usually can shoot mid-range jump shots and also do post moves.

Set the pick: Another way of saying ‘set the screen’. (An offensive player blocks off a defensive player in order to make space for the point guard.)

Shooting Guard:  This player is usually the best shooter on the team and can also handle the ball when the point guard is not open.

Small Forward: This player usually plays on the wing on offense and can drive to the basket but also can shoot.

Strong side: The side of the court that the ball is on.

Traveling: a violation of the rules that occurs when a player holding the ball moves one or both of her feet illegally. Most commonly, a player travels by illegally moving his pivot foot or taking too many steps without dribbling the ball.

Turnover: When the offense commits a violation OR the ball is stolen by the defense. Now the defense has possession of the ball.

Weak side: The side of the court that the ball is not on; also called help side on defense.

Wing: The intersection of the three-point line and where the free throw line extended would meet.

Zone: a type of defense, used in many team sports, which is the alternative to man-to-man defense;  instead of each player guarding a corresponding player on the other team, each defensive player is given an area known as a “zone” to cover

Lacrosse

Assist: The pass to the shooter that sets up a goal.

Cage: Slang for the goal (only in lacrosse)

Check: an attempt to knock the ball from another player’s stick by poking or slapping their stick or with either end of your stick, or more often the head.

Clear: When the goalie saves a shot and passes the ball to a teammate, who runs or throws it up the field to the offensive side

Cradling

Cradle: the fluid side to side motion of the stick in order to keep the ball in the stick using its own momentum while running. The player holds the stick upright with the face of the stick toward her, and she swings the stick in a half circle motion from her ear to her face and back to her ear.

Crease: 8.5 foot (women’s) radius circle that surrounds each goal. No player except the goalie is allowed inside the crease.

Dodge: A move that helps the ball carrier complete a quick change of speed to get past their defender. (There are many different types of dodges).

Face: The front of the pocket/net

Fake: Any attempt to take a shot or make a pass in order to move the goalie or defender. A player “fakes” a play as an attempt to make the goalie or defender think she is doing one thing on the field, when she actually intends to do another.  When the goalie or defender react to the “fake” by blocking or moving toward the player, the player can then make her intended move.

Feed: A pass to an open team player, sometimes as they are cutting across the field.

Flag: Yellow flag that is held up by the referee to show a penalty occurred but does not stop the play.

Ground Ball: A loose ball that is picked up from the ground by using a scooping motion with the stick.

Head: The plastic top part of the stick, where the pocket is located to hold the ball

Lax: A slang term for lacrosse.

Legal: When your stick is legal it means that it meets the regulations of the girl’s lacrosse rulebook. A legal stick means that you have to be able to see the ball above the walls of head when it is placed into the pocket and held parallel to the ground.

Pick: a player stands in a stationery position in the path of a teammate driving with the ball allowing the ball carrier to get loose as he runs by very closely scraping his defender off on the set player’s body.

Shaft:  The aluminum part of the stick that the player holds while carrying the stick.

Soccer
Dribbling

Attacking midfielder: The most forward-playing midfielder, playing right behind the forwards; she supports the offense by providing passes to forwards to set up goals.

Attacker: Any player on the team that has possession of the ball.

Back: A defender.

Break: When a team quickly advances the ball down the field in an attempt to get its players near the opponent’s goal before the defenders have a chance to retreat.

Center: A pass from a player located near the sideline towards the middle of the field; used to get the ball closer to the front of the goal; also called a cross.

Charge: To run into an opponent; legal if done from the front or side of the ball carrier; illegal against a player without the ball or from behind.

Chip pass: A pass lofted into the air from a player to a teammate; used primarily to evade a defender by kicking the ball over his head.

Chip shot: A kick lofted into the air to try to sail the ball over the goalkeeper’s head and still make it under the crossbar into the goal.

Clear: To kick the ball away from one’s goal.

Corner kick: A type of restart where the ball is kicked from the corner arc in an attempt to score; awarded to an attacking team when the ball crosses the goal line last touched by the defending team.

Defensive midfielder: The player positioned just in front of her team’s defense; she is often assigned to mark the opposition’s best offensive player

Direct free kick: A kick awarded to a player for a serious foul committed by the opposition; the player kicks a stationary ball with no opposing players within 10 yards of him; a goal can be scored directly from this kick without the ball touching another player.

Dribbling: The basic skill of advancing the ball with the feet while controlling it.

Forward line: The 3 or 4 forwards who work together to try and score goals; consists of two wingers and 1 or 2 strikers.

Forward pass: A pass made towards the opposition’s goal.

Forwards: The 3 or 4 players on a team who are responsible for most of a team’s scoring; they play in front of the rest of their team where they can take most of its shots.

4-3-3: A formation of 4 defenders, 3 midfielders and 3 forwards.

4-4-2: A formation of 4 defenders, 4 midfielders and 2 forwards.

Practicing throw-ins

Goal kick: A type of restart where the ball is kicked from inside the goal area away from the goal; awarded to the defending team when a ball that crossed the goal line was last touched by a player on the attacking team.

Hand ball: A foul where a player touches the ball with her hand or arm; the opposing team is awarded a direct free kick.

Hat trick: 3 or more goals scored in a game by a single player.

Header: The striking of a ball in the air by a player’s head.

Indirect free kick: A kick awarded to a player for a less-serious foul committed by the opposition; the player kicks a stationary ball without any opposing players within 10 yards of him; a goal can only be scored on this kick after the ball has touched another player.

Instep drive: A straight shot taken with the instep of a player’s foot; usually the most powerful and accurate of shots.

Juggling: Keeping a ball in the air with any part of the body besides the hands or arms; used for practice and developing coordination.

Leading pass: a pass sent ahead of a moving teammate to arrive at a location at the same time she does

Loft or lob: a high-arcing kick.

Man-to-man: a type of defense where each defender is assigned to mark a different forward from the other team; the most common type of defense for national-level teams.

Marking: guarding a player to prevent him from advancing the ball towards the net, making an easy pass or getting the ball from a teammate.

Midfielders: the 2, 3 or 4 players who link together the offensive and defensive functions of a team; they play behind their forwards.

Offside: a violation called when a player in an offside position receives a pass from a teammate; an indirect free kick is awarded to the non-offending team.

Penalty shot: a kick taken from the penalty spot by a player against the opposing goalie without any players closer than 10 yards away; awarded for rule violations committed by the defense within its own penalty area.

Play on: a term used by referees to indicate that no foul or stoppage is to be called; used by referees when applying the Advantage Rule.

Red card: card that a referee holds up to signal a player’s removal from the game for committing egregious foul (i.e. intent to injure an opponent, etc.); the player’s team must play the rest of the game shorthanded. 

Roll-over: Using your cleats to control the ball by rolling the ball with the bottom of your foot

Set play: a planned strategy that a team uses when a game is restarted with a free kick, penalty kick, corner kick, goal kick, throw-in or kickoff.

Shielding: a technique used by a ball carrier to protect the ball from a defender closely marking him; the ball carrier keeps his body between the ball and the defender.

Slide tackle: an attempt by a defender to redirect the ball away from an attacker by sliding on the ground with a leg extended.

Square pass: a pass made by a player to a teammate running alongside him.

Stopper: the defender that marks the best scorer on the attacking team, often the opposition’s striker; exists only in a man-to-man defense.

Sweeper: a team’s last line of defense in front of the goalkeeper.

Tackling: the act of taking the ball away from a player by kicking or stopping it with one’s feet.

Through pass: a pass sent to a teammate to get him the ball behind his defender; used to penetrate a line of defenders.

Toe-Touches: Quick touches on the top of the ball

Two-way midfielder: the versatile midfielder most responsible for organizing play in the midfield area; often a team’s energetic leader.

Volley: any ball kicked by a player when it is off the ground.

Wall: a line of 2 to 6 defending players pressed together shoulder-to-shoulder to protect their goal against a close free kick.

Wings or wingers: the players who play out wide, usually fast players

Yellow card: card that a referee holds up to warn a player for dangerous or unsportsmanlike behavior; also called a caution; 2 yellow cards in one game earns a player an automatic red card, signaling her removal from the game.

Tennis

Ace: a serve that is a winner without the receiving tennis player able to return the ball.

Ad court: the part of the tennis court that is to the left of the tennis players

Advantage: the score that follows one point played beyond deuce. If a player wins the “advantage point, he or she wins the game.

Alley: the extra area of the side court used for doubles.

ATP: stands for the Association of Tennis Professionals

Ready position

Backhand: a way to swing the tennis racquet that involves the player hitting the ball with a swing that comes across the body.

Backspin: spin of a tennis ball that causes the ball to slow down and/or bounce low.

Backswing: the motion of a swing that moves the racquet into position to swing forward and strike the ball. Bagel: in tennis, an expression meaning to win a set 6—0

Baseline: the line indicating back of the court.

Baseliner: a tennis player whose strategy is to play from the baseline. See Tennis Strategies for more.

Break: when the server loses the game Break point: one point away from breaking serve

Chip: blocking a shot with backspin

Chip and charge: aggressive strategy to return the opponent’s serve with backspin and move forward to the net for a volley

Chop: a tennis shot with extreme backspin. Meant to stop the ball where it lands

Counter puncher: another name for a player who is a defensive baseliner.

Court: the area where a tennis game is played Crosscourt: hitting the tennis ball diagonally into the opponent’s court

Deep: refers to a shot that bounces near the baseline verses near the net

Deuce: when the score in a game is 40 to 40.

Deuce court: the right side of the court

Double Fault: two missed serves in a row. The server will lose the point.

Doubles: a tennis game played by four players, two per side of the court.

Down the line: hitting a tennis shot approximately parallel to the sidelines.

Drive: a powerful stroke with slight topspin. Given its long, straight trajectory, it is well-suited as a passing shot or attempted winner.

Drop shot: a strategy where the tennis player hits the ball just over the net. It is used when the opponent is far from the net.

Drop volley: a drop shot from a volley

Fault: a service that is not in play.

First Service: the first of the two serves of a tennis ball a player is allowed. Generally the server will try a more difficult serve on the first service.                                        

Flat: a shot with little to no spin

Follow through: the part of the swing after the ball is hit. A good follow through is important for accuracy and power.

Foot fault: when the server steps over the baseline while making a serve.

Footwork: a player’s technique for moving most economically to the ideal position to play a stroke. Techniques include tango, side-step, and cross-step.

Forehand: a tennis swing where the player hits the tennis ball from behind their body. Often the forehand is the players best stroke.

Game: part of a set. Every set consists of at least six games. Composed of four (love, 15, 30, 40) and possibly five (advantage) scores.

Game point: one point away to win the tennis game.

Grand Slam: any one of the four most prestigious tennis tournaments including the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon and the U.S. Open.

Groundstroke: a forehand or backhand shot made after the tennis ball bounces once on the court

Head: the top part of the racket that has the strings and is meant to hit the ball.

Hitting Area: the general area of the court where you strike the ball.

Hold: when the server wins the tennis game.

Hopper: the container for balls in a ball machine or a separate basket for holding large quantities of tennis balls.

I-formation: a formation in doubled where the both players stand on the same side of the court prior to starting the point.

Jamming: to hit the tennis ball straight to the opponent’s body not allowing them to extend the racquet to hit the ball well.

Kick serve: a serve with a lot of spin causing the ball to bounce high

Let: when the tennis ball from a service touches the net but still lands within the service box. The server gets another try as this does not count as a fault.

Lob: a ball sent high in the air. A high, soft return behind an opponent who has approached the net. It is frequently used to force the opponent to retreat to the back of the court to play the ball. The lob can also be used as a defensive stroke, providing time for the hitter to regain court position.

Love: zero points in a tennis game.

Match: unit of one full competition in tennis.

Match point: when one tennis player only needs one more point to win the entire match

No Man’s Land: the area between the service line and the baseline, a.k.a. a taboo zone.

Out: any tennis ball that lands outside the area of play.

Backhand

Overhead/Smash: powerful shot often used to return a lob that has not been hit high or deep enough. The shot is hit in a similar manner to the serve.

Passing shot: when the tennis ball is hit such that it passes by the opponent at the net without them being able to hit the ball.

Poaching: an aggressive strategy in doubles where the tennis player at the net attempts to volley a shot hit to their partner on the baseline.

Rally: when players hit the ball back and forth to each other while the ball is landing in play.

Ready Position: a position of readiness adopted to receive the service, which acts as a starting point for all groundstrokes and volleys.

Return of the service: the first shot of a point played by the receiver of the service.

Set: usually composed of six games unless there is a tie at six. If there is a tie at six, a tie-breaker is used to determine the winner of the set. There are six games in a set and three or five sets in a match.

Set point: when a tennis player needs one point to win the set

Singles: a tennis game played by two players

Second Service: the second serve that the server is allowed after missing the first serve. This serve must be successful or the server will lose the point (called a double fault).

Serve: starts the point by the server hitting the tennis ball into the opponent’s half of the court Serve and volley: a tennis strategy where the player serves and then charges forward to the net for a volley off of the return.

Spin: rotation of the tennis ball as it moves through the air. Skilled tennis players can control the spin and, therefore, the ball’s trajectory and bounce. Split step: assuming the ready position before changing the direction of a run.

Straight sets: when one player wins every set in a match.

The ‘T’: the central area where the center line joins the service line.

Tennis Racquet: the main piece of equipment in tennis. It has a long handle and an oval shaped head with a string mesh stretched across it. It is used by the tennis player to hit the ball.

Tie Breaker: is played to decide who wins a set if the players are tied at the end of the set.

Topspin: when the tennis ball spins forward. This can cause it to bounce higher as well as dip down quickly.

Unforced error: an error made while under no pressure from the opponent (e.g. mis-hitting a ball)

Winner: an outstanding tennis shot that cannot be returned by the opponent.

WTA: stands for Women’s Tennis Association

Volleyball
Setting

Ace: a ball that is served and is not touched or the first player to respond cannot keep the ball in play, resulting in a point scored.

Assist:  Awarded when a player passes, sets, or digs the ball to a teammate who attacks the ball for a kill.

Attack:  An attempt to terminate the play by hitting the ball to the floor on the opponent’s side; can be awarded for a tip.

Attack line:  also known as the”10-foot line;” the line parallel to the centerline and 10 feet back from the net.

Approach: motion taken to the net in order to gain power before hitting the ball.

Back row attack: When a back row player attacks the ball by jumping from behind the attack line before hitting the ball; if the back row player steps on or past the line during take-off and sends the ball over after contacting it above the height of the net, the attack is illegal.

Back row line: the line that establishes the boundary of being out in the back of the court and is the line that the player stands behind to serve the ball.

Back set: ball set to go in a direction behind the setter, usually to a right side hitter.

Block: defensive play by one, two, or three front row players that stops the ball from coming over the net.

Bump: passing the ball on the forearms.

Campfire defense: When a ball falls to the floor in an area that’s surrounded by two or more motionless players; it appears the players are encircling and staring dumbfounded at a campfire.

Carry:  A misplayed ball involving “prolonged contact;” also called a lift or throw.

Center line violation:  Player encroaches on opponent’s court under the net; no violation if some part of the foot or hand (i.e. the heel) remains in contact with the centerline.

Dig: passing a ball that is spiked by the opposing team.

Down ball: a ball that is hit with topspin while the player is standing on the ground

Float serve: a serve that does not spin or rotate.

Free ball: a ball that is returned to a team with a pass rather than a spike.

Kill: ball that is spiked and cannot be returned.

Net violation: when a player touches the net during the time of play resulting in a point for the opposing team.

Overhand serve: putting the ball in play with an open hand, hitting the ball above the shoulder with a motion resembling throwing a ball.

Pepper: when two players bump, set, and spike the ball back and forth; usually done as a warm up.

Quick set: set done by the setter at a faster speed to try to trick the opposing team.

Ready position: the position that the player stands in to get ready for the serve.

Rotation: the movement of players around the court after every side out.

Set: a type of assist; the ball that is sent out by a player to the team member in the attacking position.

Side out: when a play ends and the possession of the ball changes from one team to the other team.

Spike: a hit with the intention of sending the ball straight down and ending the play.

Tip: a ball is lightly tapped over the net and strategically placed to try to end the play.

Underhand serve: putting the ball in play by holding lightly with one hand around the waist area and then hitting with the opposite hand (the arm making an arc motion) with a closed handed fist.

Softball

At-bat: A player’s turn batting while her team is on offense.

Ball: Pitch that travels outside the strike zone that the hitter does not swing at. Four balls result in a walk.

Ready for an at-bat

Bunt: A soft hit produced by holding the bat in a stationary position over home plate. Often used to advance a base runner.

Count: Term used to describe a batter’s balls and strikes during an at-bat. The number of balls is first, followed by the number of strikes. “Three and two” is three balls and two strikes.

Double play: A play in which the defense records two outs.

Error: Charged to a defensive player for mistakes that should have resulted in an out.

Fair: A ball that, when hit, lands between the two foul lines and stays in bounds past first or third base. A home run is also a fair ball.

Fly ball: Ball hit with a high, arcing trajectory.

Fly-out: If a ball is caught by one of the nine fielders before it bounces, the batter is out. Base runners must tag-up during a fly-out.

Force out: After a batter hits the ball, she must advance to 1st base. The defense can get her out by throwing the fielded ball to 1st base before the runner reaches the base. Additionally, other base runners must advance if they are forced by a base runner behind them.

Foul: Ball hit outside the two foul lines. Results in a strike. When a batter hits a foul ball with two strikes, the count remains the same and at bat continues, because a foul cannot cause a strikeout. A “foul tip” is a foul ball hit directly behind the batter.

Ground ball: Ball hit with a low trajectory that bounces on the ground in the infield.

Ground-rule double: A ball that bounces in fair territory and travels over the outfield fence. The batter is awarded 2nd base, and all other runners on base advance two bases.

Hit: A batted ball that allows a batter to safely reach base. A single (advances to 1st base), double (advances to 2nd base), triple (advances to 3rd base), and home run are all types of hits. A ball’s trajectory is usually a ground ball, linedrive, or fly ball.

Hit and run: Base runner advances to the next base when the pitch is released, knowing that the batter is swinging at the pitch.

Home run: Fair ball hit over the outfield fence between the two foul poles. Batter and any runners on base are awarded home plate and each scores a run.

Line drive: Ball hit with a trajectory almost parallel to the ground.

Out: The defense must create three “outs,” by strikeout, force-out, fly-out, or tag-out, before it can switch to offense.

Run: Scored when an offensive player safely tags home plate.

Sacrifice: A batter strategically hits the ball into an out situation to advance or score a runner. Usually a “sacrifice bunt” or “sacrifice fly.”

Safe: Called when a base runner reaches a base without getting tagged out or avoids a force out.

Stolen base: A play during which a runner advances a base when the pitcher releases the pitch.

Strike: A ball that a batter swings at and misses, hits foul, or fails to swing at that crosses the strike zone. A batter strikes out after three strikes.

Strike out: Occurs during an at-bat when a batter accumulates three strikes, at which point the at-bat ends and the player is called out.

Strike zone: The area above home plate between a batter’s knees and her armpits.

Tag out: A base runner that is not on a base when she is tagged by a player with the ball is out.

Tag up: A player waits for a fly ball to be caught before advancing to the next base or else the defense can throw the ball to the base that the runner was on before she can return to it and record another out.

Triple play: A play during which the defense records three outs.

Walk: Four balls from a pitcher results in the batter receiving a “walk,” and the batter automatically advances to 1st base. Players on successive bases who are “forced” to advance may move to the next base. Also called “base on balls.”

Field Hockey

16-yard hit: Free hit for the defense 16 yards from the goal after an offensive player hits the ball over the end line.

Add-10:  For delaying the game, ex: a defender standing closer than 5 yards away during a free hit, the fee hit is advanced 10 yards up the field

Advancing: Penalty for field player hitting the ball with any part of the body

Bully: Used to restart a play when possession is unclear when play was stopped (injury timeout). Two opposing players start with their sticks on the ground, ball is placed in between them and they must tap sticks above the ball before they can play the ball.

Center Pass:  Pass from midfield used to start each half and following all goals. “

Cherry Picker: A player that stands near the goal throughout the game, waiting for a pass to get the easy goal.

Clearing: Hitting the ball away from the goal on defense, usually as a pass up the field.

Cross:  Passing the ball in front of the opponent’s goal to create a scoring opportunity. Also called “centering.”

Dangerous Play: Play that could likely result in injury, such as pushing, tripping, or raising the ball at an opponent who is less than five yards away.

Dribble: Moving while alternating the ball from the right side of the body to the left side of the body to elude defenders.

Drive:  A hard hit made with the swinging motion of the stick.

Flagrant Foul:  Intentionally rough or dangerous play. Player is issued a red card and ejected from the game.

Flat:  A pass that goes across the field to another player.           

Flick: Pass or shot using the wrists to put force behind the ball to raise it off the ground.

Free hit:  Awarded after most penalties. Defenders must stand five yards from the ball until it is played.

Hit:  Any contact with the ball using a swinging motion of the stick.

Long Hit: Free hit for offense from the corner, following an unintentional hit over the end line by the defense. Also called “long corner” or “corner hit.”

Marking:   Guarding an opponent.

Misconduct:  Penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct, including dangerous play, using obscene language, or taunting. Results in a green card (warning), yellow card (5-minute suspension), or red card (player disqualification). When players are suspended or disqualified, their team must play with fewer members.

Obstruction:  Penalty for using the body or stick to prevent opponents from pursuing the ball. “Third party obstruction” is called for blocking an opponent so a teammate can play the ball.

Penalty Corner:  Offensive free hit from the end line, 10 yards from the goal, usually following a foul inside the striking circle. Offensive players must be outside the striking circle until the ball is hit, and the offense must control the ball before it can shoot. The defense is allowed five players behind the end line; all other defenders must be behind the centerline. A penalty corner ends when the defense takes possession of the ball; the ball crosses over the 5-yard mark outside the striking circle, or the ball exits the striking circle twice. Also called “short corner.”

Penalty Stroke: Free one-on-one shot from the penalty stroke line awarded when a foul prevents a likely goal. The goalie must remain behind the goal line until the ball is hit.

Push:  Method of moving or passing the ball in which the stick is in contact with the ball and the ground as the player pushes the ball up the field.

Raised ball:  Flicking, scooping, and chipping the ball into the air are legal.

Scoop:  Method of passing or shooting the ball by leveraging the stick underneath the ball to pick it up and fling it through the air.

Side-in:  Free hit awarded to a team after the opponent hits the ball out of bounds over the sideline. Also called “hit-in” or “push-in.”

Tackle:  Defensive effort to take the ball away from an opponent.

Through: A pass that goes forward, advancing the ball up the field to another player.

Undercutting:  Penalty for a hard swing of the stick under the ball to raise it into the air.